1-Epistaxis (bleeding from the nose)

Epistaxis is a common symptom and it is more in children than that in adults, and it has no dissemination between males and females.

In adults it is usually caused by hypertension while in children is due to capillary rupture.

In adults bleeding is usually profuse and from the posterior part of the nose and it is difficult to be managed by simple methods and hospitalization is often mandatory.

As for children it is relatively less than adults but it usually worries both the child and his parents, and usually it is managed in the outpatient clinic without the need of hospitalization.

Other causes of epistaxis are traumatic injury of the nose, malignant neoplasms, blood disorders and patients on antiplatelet as aspirin.

Conventional management of epistaxis is by putting a piece of cotton impregnated by nasal drops in the nostril or even cauterization of the bleeding site and this is usually enough in mild or anterior nasal bleeding.

In more critical cases especially in elders the need of nasal packing to compress the bleeding site and hospitalization to control the blood pressure.

Recent advances are now available as using the nasal endoscope to detect the site of bleeding and cauterization to stop bleeding without the need to be admitted in a hospital or even nasal packing.