Nasal allergy is a common disease in adults and children, males and females. Symptoms of nasal allergy are nasal obstruction, watery discharge, sneezing, itching in or around the nose.
Allergic rhinitis usually affects person’s sleep pattern, as well as on the ability of students’ achievement in the school or university or sport, as well as on the ability of human’s achievement and focus at work.
Allergic rhinitis is usually accompanied by chest allergy as well, which makes it more difficult for the patient and the physician. And even in some times it is accompanied by acute or chronic sinusitis.
Allergic rhinitis is encountered when the patient is exposed to an allergen as pollen grains, fungus or house dust mite which leads to irritation of the mucosal lining of the nose and symptoms reappear.
Allergic rhinitis may be seasonal more in spring and summer or it can be all over the year.
Allergic rhinitis is diagnosed by meticulous history taking to detect the timing of symptoms and circumstances that cause nasal irritation. In addition to nasal endoscopy to detect the severity of the disease either it is congestion of the mucosa only or redundancy of the mucosa or more progression to form nasal polyp and in this case the need for computed tomography to detect the exact site and degree of the roots of these polyps and to exclude the presence of chronic sinusitis. The role of allergy test is to detect the type of allergy (pollen grains, fungus or house dust mite) as well as the degree of allergy (mild, moderate or severe).
Allergic rhinitis is treated primarily by avoidance and precautions towards the allergen but also some medications are prescribed as antihistamines as in case of sneezing, itching or discharge, or nasal decongestant drops in case of obstruction. It is worth mentioning that steroid nasal spray is beneficial in most cases and of course all these drugs must be taken under medical supervision to avoid complication.
In case of nasal polyps, sinus surgery is mandatory using nasal endoscope and shaver to remove the polyps totally and to prevent recurrence.
Immunotherapy is the gold slandered in severe cases in this is given in the form of regular dose given not less than 3 years to reach almost normal immune level towards the blamed allergen.
What is really important is the regular follow up using nasal endoscopy to detect any complication and/or recurrence as early as possible.
Chest consultation is mandatory in case of nasal and bronchial asthma to prevent prescribing similar medication and for improving the nasal and chest complaint simultaneously.